Язык программирования Crystal


A fun declaration inside a lib binds to a C function.

lib C
  # In C: double cos(double x)
  fun cos(value : Float64) : Float64

Once you bind it, the function is available inside the C type as if it was a class method:

C.cos(1.5) #=> 0.0707372

You can omit the parentheses if the function doesn't have arguments (and omit them in the call as well):

lib C
  fun getch : Int32


If the return type is void you can omit it:

lib C
  fun srand(seed : UInt32)


You can bind to variadic functions:

lib X
  fun variadic(value : Int32, ...) : Int32

X.variadic(1, 2, 3, 4)

Note that there are no implicit conversions (except to_unsafe, explained later) when invoking a C function: you must pass the exact type that is expected. For integers and floats you can use the various to_... methods.

Because method names in Crystal must start with a lowercase letter, fun names must also start with a lowercase letter. If you need to bind to a C function that starts with a capital letter you can give the function another name for Crystal:

lib LibSDL
  fun init = SDL_Init(flags : UInt32) : Int32

You can also use a string as a name if the name is not a valid identifier or type name:

lib LLVMIntrinsics
  fun ceil_f32 = "llvm.ceil.f32"(value : Float32) : Float32

This can also be used to give shorter, nicer names to C functions, as these tend to be long and usually be prefixed with the library name.

The valid types to use in C bindings are:

  • Primitive types (Int8, ..., Int64, UInt8, ..., UInt64, Float32, Float64)
  • Pointer types (Pointer(Int32), which can also be written as Int32*)
  • Static arrays (StaticArray(Int32, 8), which can also be written as Int32[8])
  • Function types (Function(Int32, Int32), which can also be written as Int32 -> Int32)
  • Other struct, union, enum, type or alias declared previously.
  • Void: the absence of a return value.
  • NoReturn: similar to Void, but the compiler understands that no code can be executed after that invocation.

Refer to the type gammar for the notation used in fun types.

The standard library defines the LibC lib with aliases for common C types, like int, short, size_t. Use them in bindings like this:

lib MyLib
  fun my_fun(some_size : LibC::SizeT)

Note: The C char type is UInt8 in Crystal, so a char* or a const char* is UInt8*. The Char type in Crystal is a unicode codepoint so it is represented by four bytes, making it similar to an Int32, not to an UInt8. There's also the alias LibC::Char if in doubt.